Symbiosis International University Symbiosis School for Liberal Arts

Politics of Ecology and Environment in Developing Countries


The ecology and environment of developing countries have been significantly altered through colonization and after independence. Developing countries has had to make negotiations between utilizing natural resources and conserving its environment. In the 21st Century, these negotiations have become more intense as we grapple with reduced resources, natural disasters, urban pollution and global warming. As developing countries gear up for industrial and development projects, they also negotiate with claims of indigenous forest lands, fishing rights, grazing rights etc. This course is aimed at considering the various challenges, policies, laws and approaches of developing countries in negotiating environmental sustenance, and management of ecology and environment. The course will address forests, fisheries, mining, pollution, industrialization, water resources, urban pollution, tribal rights and alternative energy.

 Course Objectives 

  • To illustrate Ecological and Environmental history of Developing Countries
  • To interpret Policies, Programs and Laws regarding Environment and Ecology
  • To examine contemporary themes and debates surrounding Environment and Ecology
  • To operate using new methods for understanding scientific data on ecological damage/conservation

 Teaching Methodology 

  • Interactive and discussion mode of teaching.
  • Student-led discussions on themes and issues.
  • Reading and discussions based on research papers, news reports and legal documents.
  • Use of case-studies and data analysis.


Not for students of 1st and 2nd Semester.

 Course Outline 

S.No. Topic Hours
1. Understanding Ecology and Environment
o   Defining Ecology and Environment
o   Evolution of approaches to Ecology and Environment
o   Understanding Conservation, Management, Sustainability
o   Globalization and Environment


Ecological and Environmental History
o   Colonization and Extraction of Resources
o   Environmental Dependence post-Independence
o   Environmental Events and Movements


Laws, Policies and Programs
o   History of Environment Laws
o   Outlining Environment Policies and Programs
o   Contemporary laws and policies
o   Local Self Government and Environment


Contemporary Debates in Ecology and Environment
o   Urban Pollution, policy and administration
o   Common Property Resources distribution
o   Legal and Political Implications of Industrial Disasters
o   Tribal Forest Rights Claims
o   Water Pollution, Depletion, Fisheries and Farmers
o   The Case for Alternative Energy